12 principles of animation
These are the 12 principles of animation producers use while creating an animation, the quotation mark is marked by myself
Squash and stretch:
‘In 3D animation, squash and stretch is a technique that is applied to an animated or in-motion characters to give them a more exaggerated movement.’
‘An anticipation pose or drawing is a preparation for the main action of an animated scene, as distinct from the action and the reaction.’
‘is the third of twelve basic principles of animation, and is often overlooked by animators, despite its ability to inform every aspect of a narrative. Simply put: Staging directs the audience’s attention toward the most important elements in a scene in a way that most effectively tells the story.’
Straight ahead action and pose to pose:
‘Straight Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose Action. Straight Ahead Action in hand drawn animation is when the animator starts at the first drawing in a scene and then draws all of the subsequent frames until he reaches the end of the.’
Follow through and overlapping action:
Follow through and overlapping action is a general heading for two closely related animation techniques which form part of the 12 basic principles of animation, identified by Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnston in their authoritative 1981 book on Disney Animation, The Illusion of Life.
Slow in and Slow out:
‘Slow In and Out. This refers to the spacing of the in between frames at maximum positions. It is the second and third order continuity of motion of the object. Rather than having a uniform velocity for an object, it is more appealing, and sometimes more realistic, to have the velocity vary at the extremes.’
In nature, arcs are the most economical routes by which a form can move from one position to another. Such arcs are used extensively in animation, since they create motion that is more expressive and less stiff than action along a straight path.’
A secondary action is an action that results directly from another action. Secondary actions are important in heightening interest and adding a realistic complexity to the animation. The secondary action of Luxo Jr’s forward motion is the rippling of his power cord.
‘The Principles of Animation, Timing. or the speed of an action, is an important principle because it gives meaning to movement.’
‘Exaggeration is an effect especially useful for animation, as animated motions that strive for a perfect imitation of reality can look static and dull. The level of exaggeration depends on whether one seeks realism or a particular style, like a caricature or the style of a specific artist.’
‘Solid Drawing In 2D Animation, solid drawing is about creating an accurate drawing with volume and weight, and thinking about balance, and the anatomy in a pose. With 3D animation, animators are less likely to rely on their drawings, but the idea of solid drawing is just as important.’
’12 Principles of Animation: Character Appeal. … Character Appeal is designing a character’s look in a way that’s real, interesting, and engaging to an audience. Character appeal is difficult to quantify – like trying to gauge “charisma” in an actor. Yet as in live action, star quality is important.’
Overall, what I understand from this is that while making an animation before you even get to designing you already know all these 12 principles will apply to it because these principles and basically what makes an animation, if you don’t use these you basically have nothing, just an something in your head, that’s it.
This is the timeline of animation history. As we can see there has been a significant change between the years 1834 to 2012 and even in in the early 90’s the animation technology got very advance for it’s time for example ‘Snow White’.
We are going to be looking at the ways HOW animation has changed these past bunch of decades.
We have come a long way when we take a look at the timeline an the amusing thing is that 3350 drawing animation is still a way of animating to this day which is quite crazy.
As we move on we find out about the ‘zoetrope’ which is quite often used in horror films where the thing is set to spin around and the animation comes alive when you look inside the circle.
‘The Kinetoscope is an early motion picture exhibition device. The Kinetoscope was designed for films to be viewed by one individual at a time through a peephole viewer window at the top of the device.’
Now moving towards the 90’s the technology started to become more advance and as we can see this machine was just a move advance version of the zoetrope.
Moving forward we find that the animation was in the forefront of production and now this would allow more people at once to view something like John Brays studios and from then on animation has become so very advanced from Snow White in 1937 (The Snow White also comes down to drawing production) and to now for example ‘Ice age’ which is fully computer based when designing.
An Individuals Hope
‘A feeling of expectation and desire for a particular thing to happen’:
Now, this is the example that google gives but I’m going to give you my own example of hope. I think the word hope can be used in many events and situations depending on how someone is taking it, for example I’m using Obama’s slogan for this part.
The Poster states ‘hope’. He was the president of America so we clearly know who this is aimed at, yes, the people of america who were in search for hope, they were in a search of a leader that can give them hope for a better America.
So this is where Obama came in and self chose himself to be Hope for America. This slogan somewhat did give hope to the people in that time. Thats my example for hope. Hope can also be used in negative situation so it’s not always good to hope.
‘I hope he/she dies’, this is false hope for someone and for the person hoping because there is a saying that if you think good for people good will happen to you. So hope is also used for pros and cons.
A group of Hope
Religion somewhat lives on hope as well. Majority of religions these days hope for word peace together, it’s their to live a peaceful life and they expect everyone to hope for more or less the same desire but every religion always has an extremist that that has a different type of desire.
In this case i’m using terrorists as an example. They kill innocents and hope to live a happy after life in heaven which is complete nonsense according to the Holy books such as the Quran and Bible. So either hope for something good or don’t hope at all.
Also as the terrorists or extremists get brain washed by their leaders, the leaders give them hope that after killing they will live a happily ever after which clearly isn’t the case.
This is the animation storyboard I designed in my sketchbook using pencil. It shows a basic story example of how the animation will run, how long each scene is and where the camera will be shooting from.
Animation Mood board
This is a mood board which gives us a visual of what kind of animation gave me an idea of what kind of animation I wanted to make.
At first I had an idea of making a character influenced by Johnny bravos body and using the face of action man from Dexter lab. Overall the character turned out great.
However, To move this kind of character around in the animation would be so much effort and I hardly had enough time to make it so I made Second story board with a skinny character, that didn’t move much, only the background made movement.
This idea helped me to finish the animation on time. This character was produced on Illustrator in 10 minutes because his face didn’t need much detail neither his body.
When I looked into this 90s animation, I could not find any ideas from anywhere to what I wanted to do. I found influence from characters from couple of cartoon network cartoons such as Johnny bravo. His physic was perfect for my characters body style and for the face i got influence from a character from Dexters lab which was action man.
My idea developed quite alot along the way because when you create one thing, another pops in mind and then you think, I can actually combine these two to make my piece. For my first idea, the background design developed due to the ‘power puff girls’.
They tend to have a very bright coloured environment and thats what I wanted to make because in my opinion the surroundings gave a good example of hope. Also that kind of background changes the mood in a good way.
My idea did change half way through because my character was so well designed, actually it was too well designed. What I mean by that is that is I would have to put so much effort into little movements of his body which I could do but I hardly had any time left. I changed my whole idea of the story due to that.
My second idea was pretty good. The storyboard was well written in my judgment. The lighting was the only problem, the animation shown was a bit dull and didn’t show much of a crisp image to be honest.
I think the movement could have been much better performed by the characters (MYSELF). This was designed on Illustrator and only Illustrator so we have to allow it. Next time, when i’m designing the scenes i’ll surely use Photoshop for better effects.
I think my final overall all design was satisfactory because as I stated before, I had little time which was my own fault so what I produced at the end was rushed but in reality I think it gave a good image/example on hope. I could make a lot of changes in character movement, the background and the storyboard in general.
Judging by the feedback I got it was exactly what I thought it would be ‘could of been much better’ so keeping that in mind I will do much better next time. I will give myself a lot more time. I also think my animation was too short and it could have been well longer
Overall it may be considered that my animation did not meet the full requirements in success but its something to watch review and hand in.
This is one of the responses I received from my a family member. I think the response was a on point to whatever I had in my head, what I mean by that is this survey overall indicates that this animation needs big improvement and that it wouldn’t be used for official production purposes.
The bunch of responses i received also help me understand how I can produce a better storyboard , not only that the overall survey answered were similar and all mostly stated one thing in particular which was the character development could be improved to a good extent.
In my opinion these survey answer will help me improve my animation because mostly all of the responses were what I already had in mind which means the responses were quite honest. I had overall 4 to 5 responses but the one I put up on my blog had gave me the biggest sense of how i could actually improved.
In all the surveys one response was the same as I stated before and that answer was “character development could be improved”, keeping that in mind I also thought deeper into this issue and finalise what else i needed to improve on alongside the character, which was the background.
One of the questions in my survey was, ‘would you consider this for production’ and the response was always not yet, meaning if I developed the background and the characters the consideration would change.
‘A Zoetrope is another animation device which is very similar to the phenakistoscope. In this case the Zoetrope consists of a cylinder with slits cut vertically in the sides so people can look through and see the moving photographs or drawings.’
‘This also produces the illusion of motion. The person who invented this was William George Horner. He was a British mathematician who was aware about the development of the Phenakistoscope and created the Zoetrope in 1833 or 1834.’
As we can see, William George Horner was a early animator and he produced the zoetrope which allowed people to view animation through a cylinder which spun around, the basic overall point was to view 2d animation through that cylinder because around that time there a wasn’t screen viewing such as tv cinema of any sort so this was a start towards development .
When we look into the later years we find that disney released Snow white which was fully 2d animated, it was unrealistically good for its time because bearing in mind colour for movies was still in process and snow white came out in colour which is something to think about.
When we think about the process from that ‘zoetrope’ time to after 80 years or so we now know audio, colour and a very dramatic and long story board went into making this snow white animation because while comparing to the early cylinder animation we know there was necessarily no audio or a dramatic story board put into the making.
Nowadays, what the zoetrope provided at that time can be produced in a college on a Mac whereas at that time it was made a well developed man.
So it’s something to think about how times change. obviously now in 2d animation we see there are computers in use even for snow white in 1937 and in that process comes along the 12 principles of animation which has already been stated before. IN the earlier days this might have not been acquired.
As we can see, this video takes us through the steps of early animation. We find that this animation in the early days took a lot of effort. we also find that most of the times the animations were produced by hand.
The process went something like this, First to start off with the producers would sit down in a room and and make the storyboard this would then follow up with the flip book or flip pages.
This would mean that after drawing all the characters and background bit by bit with a slight movement on every page, it would then be put under a projector. The colour less animation would then be viewed by people on the projector screen.
The music and sound effect production was quite fascinating, this is because to this day the music is produced live by people playing instruments and body on action (body on and voice action for sound effects.
This is how snow white was mostly produced, it was hands on action. If we compare it to now, most and nearly all companies such as disney have upgraded to everything mostly computer based which in my opinion is better because it illustrates better colour and lighting.
In comparison to my animation, i think flip book animation would make my animation look bad because in flip book or hand drawn animation there is more of a realistic body illustrations, for example a sneeze would mean the face would clench first and it would be easy to draw that with hand but with my animation there is a lot of stiffness.
Overall the basic point of this video is that it shows how the early animation was made and how it relates to snow white 1937.
PIXILATION STOP MOTION
This was my specific research which was pixilation stop motion, it requires some camera movements if needed or else the camera is fixed in one place and the pictures are taken movement by movement. The whole point is that it will look like a picture video so pixel by pixel movements.
My stop motion
I started off my stop motion with two script designs in my sketchbook. This was so I could have an idea of how and where my 5 second stop motion would take place.
So I decided to do a simple but effective design which was me pretending to take out pencils out of the pencil pack on amazon on the monitor which was pretty cool in my opinion.
My second idea was to take pencils out of the phone screen but due to the size it would look unrealistic.
This assignment was Stop motion based but I got given a specific area of it which was pixilation.
This is where the Camera does not move at all and it stays in the same exact position for the remainder of the 5 seconds.
The amusing part of this process is that it gives you a lot of freedom where you can make anything with anything and anywhere.
This is the stop motion
STOP MOTION STORYBOARD
This is the storyboard I have drawn in my sketchbook to give a visual idea of how my stop motion animation would look like.
Stop motion research
‘Stop motion -a cinematographic technique whereby the camera is repeatedly stopped and started, for example to give animated figures the impression of movement.’
Kubo and the two strings is all about stop motion, nothing about this has anything to do with anything other than stop motion.
Other than the backgrounds and some of the characters and motions are green-screen to give it more of a better effect.
In my opinion stop motion takes an intensely long time if you are making and over hour long movie and I struggled with just 5 seconds so we can now see how much effort it takes to make something like this.
Of course, I only used pencils a camera and a Mac in one area but it was still hard to keep still and precise on the movement of the hand.
This is because one foul shot or foul move could ruin all of the 5 seconds because if one picture was deleted all of them would have to be deleted.
Normally how stop motion works is that if there are about 60 shots it will skip from 1 to 4 for 1 move and will get to sixty in a bunch of moves so every image has to be in sink.
This is an example of stop motion animation. We have all watched these cartoons, shows on tv, some when we were younger like shawn the sheep and some new ones like caroline.
I personally think this is a great way of making tv shows because when the younger audience grows up they tend to understand what kind of effort is put into stuff like this so they appreciate it more and then it gets popular.
Moreover I also think that this is a hands on sort of animation which i would personally enjoy making and i’m sure a lot of you would also enjoy it.
Stop motion EVALUATION
I am quite pleased with my stop motion, as I stated before I placed the camera behind the chair in front of the desk. The camera visualising half of the monitor screen because I had to get more of the desk in the camera because the whole idea was to show how the pencils become the letter ‘E’.
I got influence from many stop motions such as shawn the sheep and Wallace and grommet. My stop motion actually relates nothing to those two shows but for my research I looked into the close up scenes for example if the character was holding an object and the camera is zoomed in to show the little movement of how the hand moves. That was my main influence for my idea.
My idea stayed the same throughout the process, that is because in my head i knew what i was trying to produce would really workout well as it was quick and easy to make. The camera was on auto shot mode and it took pictures while my hand moved in slow motion, so the amusing part was that it was all pictures that looked like a 5 second video.
I did have some trouble, while the picture folder was in adobe premier there was a sudden glitch near the end when it was played. That is because I took a triple shot of the same movement by mistake which is also the fault of the auto shot mode, that basically showed me how not to always find the easy way out of these things.
So to sort this out, The folder watched re-batched meaning the whole folder was looked over in adobe premier and the shots were re numbered from 200 to make it easier to understand where the first frame starts from, also the triple shot was taken out s that meant not one of my shots were missing which is bad.
So to solve that i stretched the whole 3 seconds to 5 seconds so that meant the stop motion would skip two to three frames but would still look normal. The glitch still didn’t disappear because stretching just meant the whole 3 seconds were stretched as one not image by image.
I had a long thought about that and i decided to work with it rather than re creating the whole thing again. I put a beat drop music at the point of the glitch which made it seem amusing creative.
Overall I am happy with my work, I just think I could have planned it a bit better rather than jumping to the finale, I also think it somewhat meets the requirements.